Tuesday, December 9, 2014

66th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The UDHR and the WCHR

By David Gallup

      On this 66th anniversary of the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), we have a milestone in the progression of human rights to celebrate – the first phase of the creation of a World Court of Human Rights is nearly complete.

     The Design Team of the World Court of Human Rights (WCHR) Development Project held face-to-face and online meetings over the last year to draft an up-to-date Statute for this Court that will provide a venue for victims of human rights violations to seek redress. The WCHR Design Team is composed of lawyers, jurists, academics, practitioners and non-profit organizations.  We are seeking additional input from the global public who is encouraged to view and comment on the Statute at www.worldcourtofhumanrights.net.  Individuals and organizations interested in providing legal, technical, and financial support can contact the WCHR Design Team by emailing info@worldservice.org.

     Phase One of the Court’s development involved drafting the Statute and raising initial awareness among the legal and judicial communities.  To complete this task, the WCHR Development Project Team Leader, sponsored by the World Service Authority, is currently attending the 15th Annual Conference of Chief Justices of the World in Lucknow, India.

     This Team Leader will provide to each Justice in attendance a pocket-sized booklet of the World Court of Human Rights Statute as well as a professionally–prepared survey to gauge the Justices’ thought process about the Statute and the Court.  We will request that the Chief Justices of the highest courts around the world draft a resolution in support of the establishment of this new Court.  We will also recruit Justices to participate in the later phases of the Court’s development, such as promoting the importance of the Court to domestic populaces and potentially serving as Justices on the Court.

     After the Conference, the Design Team will move into Phase Two, the fundraising and promotional stage.  During this Phase, the Design Team, along with business and legal consultants, will conduct feasibility studies and sensitivity analyses, create focus groups of judges and justices, fine tune the vision of the Court, determine the services and support that the Court will provide, gather data and draft budgets, and produce a prospectus and other documentation that clarify the Court’s significance.
      The establishment of the World Court of Human Rights is significant because it will be the first adjudicative body that will take the fulfillment of the universal rights affirmed in the UDHR as its underlying judicial principle.

      Although there is an International Court of Justice, that body only handles disputes between nation-states.  The International Criminal Court only handles criminal matters pertaining to war crimes, crimes against the peace, and crimes against humanity.  The WCHR, however, will focus on providing individuals and groups, who are suffering from human rights abuses, a forum to have their grievances heard and remediated.

      Because respect for universal human rights requires a system of justice that transcends the nations, the drafters of the UDHR contemplated the need for global legal procedures. The UDHR’s Preamble declares “that human rights should be protected by the rule of law” and that “every individual and organ of society shall strive … to promote respect for these rights and freedoms … by progressive measures , national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance.”

      Both the UDHR and the WCHR proclaim that adherence to the rule of law is the foundation of freedom, peace, and justice for humanity. The UDHR and WCHR share other paramount goals. First, human rights are the underlying ideology of both the Declaration and the Court.  Next the UDHR and the Court declare a commitment to respect human rights unequivocally, ensuring that our rights will be maintained by the rule of law which includes adjudication of wrongs.  Third, the UDHR, as customary international law, and the Court, as a global tribunal, both describe and consider the universality and applicability of rights to everyone, everywhere.  The WCHR will create respect for law and rights at the global level.

      The WCHR will be the Supreme Court of, by and for the people of the world. Now that’s something to celebrate!

Monday, October 27, 2014

Ebola Diagnosis: Inadequacy of the Nation-State

By David Gallup

Disease knows no borders.

In an ungoverned world, Ebola and other viruses can potentially wipe out a large part of the human species. National governments cannot handle an epidemic, let alone a pandemic, because they take a parochial, short-term view of events outside their claimed frontiers. Countries respond to crises elsewhere in the world only when it is in their local interest, applying a “national security” or “public order” approach rather than what is in the best interest of humanity.

Many nation-states do not have the scientific or economic capacity to control the spread of disease within their borders. They cannot handle health crises on their own.

The World Health Organization has been successful in controlling and eradicating some diseases such as polio. United Nations member-states, however, consistently prevent this UN agency and other health organizations, such as the Centers for Disease Control, from intervening in the affairs of each country through underfunding, understaffing, and domestic control over health matters. A Washington Post front page article confirms that there has been “no coordinated global response” to the Ebola crisis (Oct. 5, A9).  A global government approach provides the needed remedy to heal the divisions that prevent us from having an effective global public health system.

The division and discrimination that national governments perpetuate lead to violations of the right to adequate health care.  Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) affirms, “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including, food, clothing, housing and medical care…”   The ability to exercise the right to health care, according to the UDHR, is dependent upon whether a society provides sufficient economic conditions and social services to the population.  People living in poverty with minimal education and limited medical resources cannot exercise this right.

The nationalistic approach to health care also dramatically impacts the right to travel (Article 13 of the UDHR).  People living in countries where the disease is out of control can be discriminated against and refused travel visas even if they do not live near the outbreak and have had no contact with the infected. Those who have the virus might need to leave their country to get proper medical care, but other countries may refuse to let them in.  Also, other countries often refuse to provide technical and financial assistance to the disease-ravaged country – assistance that could help those infected locally in the short term, and could safeguard everyone globally in the long term.

People need to receive help no matter where they live.  Helping all humans, regardless of their nationality, is the only way to protect humanity as a whole and each of us individually.

Nationalism is a disease run rampant. It prevents us from achieving a sustainable, healthy and peaceful world. Albert Einstein said, “Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind.”

If we humans cannot devise a system to govern our interactions, whether in global health or politics, then we are doomed to destroy each other and the earth.  It is a matter of priorities.  When we fund the next stealth bomber, arm insurgents, prepare for and wage wars, no funding remains to build hospitals and to strengthen the economic, social and health infrastructure.

Disease is universal.

Science is universal.

Rights are universal.

Helping our fellow humans throughout the world is not universal – but it should be.

Thursday, April 3, 2014

A Dangerous Fiction

by David Gallup

Recent events in Crimea demonstrate the dangerous fiction of the nation-state, that one day a part of the planet “belongs” to one country and, on the next day, as troops and weapons are brandished, to another.  Virtually overnight Crimea passed from Ukraine to Russia.

Whether it was the instability of the Ukrainian government, the flexing of Russian military might, or a Crimean desire to align with Russia that precipitated a change in political allegiance, the biological status of the people inhabiting that land did not change.  They remain human beings which means their highest citizenship did not change either, that of world citizenship.

When people unite at the national level, no matter what country they identify with, the resulting separation and exclusivity can easily lead to violent conflict.  A “we” versus “they” dichotomy reigns. Is it possible to maintain our tribal or nationally patriotic distinctions while simultaneously maintaining the exclusive power to destroy each other and the planet? There’s nothing wrong with maintaining our lower level allegiances as long as we recognize our highest level allegiance to each other, to humanity.

Nationalism, when the power and tools to wage war are outlawed, does not inevitably lead to armed conflict.  On its positive side, nationalism may affirm the unique cultural, linguistic, religious, socio-economic, historical and institutional differences that make our world interesting.  A few nation-states have even legally affirmed their desire for peaceful human interaction such as Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution and Article 12 of the Costa Rican Constitution which outlaw war and dissolve the national military.

As communities around the world continue to divide themselves into smaller and smaller units, the necessity to unify at a higher level in order to affirm our universal human rights and to implement a global legal framework becomes greater and greater.

With a common allegiance to global democratic institutions, to protecting humanity as a whole, and to safeguarding the earth, world citizenship links us all together for the good of the one and the many.

In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, physicist Joseph Rotblat said, “We need to convey the message that safeguarding our common property, humankind, will require developing in each of us a new loyalty: a loyalty to mankind. It calls for the nurturing of a feeling of belonging to the human race. We have to become world citizens.”  Along with Rotblat, Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein, in their joint statement, appealed to human beings as human beings, “Remember your humanity, and forget the rest.”

Affirm your humanity by registering as a World Citizen. www.worldservice.org/reg.html

Monday, January 13, 2014

New Year’s 2014 Message:

by David Gallup

“As a Citizen of World Government, I affirm my awareness of my inherent responsibilities and rights as a legitimate member of the total world community of all men, women, and children, and will endeavor to fulfill and practice these whenever and wherever the opportunity presents itself.”
 –from the World Citizen Affirmation

World Citizenship means not only recognizing our universal rights, but also recognizing our universal responsibilities to each other and to the earth.

World citizens endeavor to make our communities and our world a better place to live. We call upon all world citizens to self-organize for the benefit of each other and the earth. We can take action to enhance our own lives and those of everyone around us. This process is about creating an independent and self-reliant knowledge-based system of world citizen interaction. Each of us has special knowledge and skills that we can share.

At WSA’s World Citizen Yahoo Group (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WorldCitizen), at its Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/pages/World-Service-Authority/149086282356) or through other social media, world citizens can reach out to each other to lend a hand.

Fulfilling our responsibilities may mean writing a letter on behalf of another person who has been refugeed by war. It may mean contacting a government ministry to expose a violation of someone’s right to residence or work. It may mean providing clothing or shelter to someone in need whether in your neighborhood or around the world.

Using social media or in person, we can provide assistance to each other outside of the national monetary system. By minimizing the use of national payment systems, we can chip away at the flow of money and taxes that go to waging wars. 

We can barter and exchange ideas, skills, services, and knowledge. For example, a carpenter could help a teacher with some home repairs, and the teacher could teach the carpenter a new language. Or we can share or give away items that can still be used by others. We can help each other with assistance that we need whether it is architectural, linguistic, scientific, mathematical, legal, artistic, mechanical, technological, etc.

The World Citizen Credo affirms that “As a global person, a World Citizen relates directly to humankind and to all fellow humans spontaneously, generously and openly. Mutual trust is basic to his/her lifestyle.” By sharing skills and knowledge, we relate to each other “generously and openly,” and we establish trust by working together.

As we start this new year, let us make our world better for everyone by reaching out to our fellow humans and organizing as world citizens. Let us each ask, “How can I help you as your neighbor and fellow world citizen?”

Monday, December 2, 2013

65th Anniversary of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights


by David Gallup
President, World Service Authority

Every December 10th since 1948, we have celebrated the unanimously signed Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a momentous occasion in humanity's evolution. This is our yearly reminder to make every day a human rights day, to advance social, economic and environmental justice.

For nearly 60 years, the administrative branch of the World Government of World Citizens, the World Service Authority (WSA), has been providing human rights assistance to individuals around the world through legal advocacy, educational services, and documentation. The daily work of WSA's Documentation and Legal Departments has been indispensable to many people made stateless, refugeed, or undocumented due to war or national governmental persecution.

The WSA is tasked with implementing our human rights fully and engaging others in this process. Making everyone aware of their rights, providing tools to help people claim their rights, and seeing that our rights are respected are WSA's principal missions.

The day-to-day advocacy work, educational programs, and document issuance of the WSA both affirm and implement the rights listed in the Declaration:( Click hereto view the Declaration)

  • that everyone is born free and equal in dignity and rights (Article 1)(the World Birth Certificate)

  • that everyone has rights and freedoms without distinction or discrimination of any kind (Article 2) (the World Birth Certificate, the World Citizen Card and Certificate, the World Planetary Vision Commission, the World Women's Commission, the World Stateless Persons Commission)

  • the right to life, liberty and the security of the person (Article 3)(the World Disarmament Commission, the Sovereign Order of World Guards, the World Environment Commission, the World Energy Commission and the World Space Commission)

  • that no one shall be enslaved or tortured (Articles 4 and 5)(the World Judicial Commission and the World Court of Human Rights)

  • the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law (Article 6)(the World ID Card and World Passport)

  • that all are equal before the law and are entitled without discrimination to equal protection of the law (Article 7)(the World Court of Human Rights and the World Judicial Commission)

  • that everyone has the right to an effective remedy, no one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile, everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing if charged with a crime, the right to be presumed innocent, and the right to privacy (Articles 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) (the principle of World Habeas Corpus, the World Court of Human Rights and the World Judicial Commission)

  • the right to freedom of movement and residence, and to leave any country (Article 13)(the World Passport, the International Exit Visa and the International Residence Permit)

  • the right to seek and enjoy asylum from persecution (Article 14)(the World Political Asylum Card and the World Stateless Persons Commission)

  • the right to change your political allegiance (Article 15)(the World Citizen Card and Certificate)

  • the right to marry (Article 16)(the World Marriage Certificate)

  • the right to own property (Article 17)(all WSA documents belong to the individuals to whom they are issued)

  • the right to freedom of thought and conscience (Article 18)(the World Media Association, the World Planetary Vision Commission, world citizenship, universal values)

  • the right to freedom of expression (Article 19)(the World Media Association Press Card and the World Communications Commission)

  • the right to assembly and association (Article 20)(the World Citizen Card and Certificate, the World Citizen Group at http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/worldcitizen/info)

  • the right to take part in government and the will of the people as the basis of the authority of government (Article 21)(the World Syntegrity Project, the World Referendum, the World Parliament, the World Election Commission, the World Citizen Government)

  • the right to social security, the right to work, and the right to leisure (Articles 22, 23, and 24)(the World Economics Commission and the World Sports Commission)

  • the right to a standard of living adequate for one's health and well-being (Article 25)(the World Health Commission and the World Traditional Medicine Commission)

  • the right to education (Article 26)(the World Education Commission and the World Youth Education Commission)

  • the right to freely participate in the cultural life of the world community (Article 27)(the World Cultural Commission and the World Music and Arts Commission)

  • that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms of the Declaration will be fully realized (Article 28) (the World Cybernetics Commission, the World Design Science Commission, the World Syntegrity Project, the World Mundialization Commission, the World Planetary Vision Commission, the World Citizen Government)

  • that everyone has duties to the world community and that our rights are only limited for the purpose of recognizing and respecting the rights and freedoms of others (Article 29) (the World Citizen Card and Certificate and the Sovereign Order of World Guards)

  • that our rights are sacrosanct, inviolable (Article 30)(the World Citizen Government)

  • On this 65th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration, recall that no one will claim your rights for you.  You must claim them. But in order to claim your rights, first you must know them. Every year, the WSA provides thousands of free copies of the Declaration in multiple languages to individuals around the world through its Human Rights Awareness Project.  (Donations are accepted for bulk orders of the Declaration.  Please see the WSA Catalog under "Basic Documents.")(Click here to view theCatalog)

    Join us in this endeavor to ensure that human rights are universally respected for everyone, everywhere, everyday.


    In 1948, the framers of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights did not envision it as a mere wish list of human aspirations. The devastation, despair and despicable acts of World War II were still fresh in their memories when they were drafting the Declaration.  They wanted to create "a social and international order" in which everyone could share the world peacefully and in which everyone's rights and needs would be fully met. They envisioned every day as a human rights day.

    Garry Davis, World War II veteran, world citizen and human rights activist, was, behind the scenes, instrumental in the unanimous signing of the Declaration. By December of 1948, Garry was world famous for camping out on the steps of the United Nations when it was holding its General Assembly sessions at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris and for interrupting a Session to call for a World Government and World Parliament.

    In the halls of the UN, however, the squabbling of the nation-states continued. The Russians and several Soviet Bloc countries were threatening to vote against the Declaration.  The night before the vote, at the Velodrome d'Hiver before 20,000 people, Garry Davis called for World Government. He said, "We can no longer permit ourselves to be lead by statesmen who use us as pawns in the game of national interests. We wish to be led by those who represent us directly: we, the individuals of the human community."

    This rousing speech made headlines throughout Europe and impacted the representatives of the states considering whether to accept or reject the Declaration.  The next day, instead of voting against the UDHR, 8 countries abstained.  This meant that 48 countries unanimously accepted the UDHR.  Now every member-state of the United Nations, when becoming members, must agree at least in principle to abide by the Declaration.

    Because the Declaration is "customary international law," however, it garners less respect than treaty law which all UN member-states are bound to uphold.  And even treaty law is easily flouted by wealthy or powerful countries that either can afford to or find it in their best interest to disobey their agreements because they know there will be no repercussion.  National governments can violate our rights with impunity.  Whether through large scale violations such as war, or the daily indignities that jeopardize our basic freedoms, the nation-states perpetuate a system that intentionally and arbitrarily violates universal rights.  Despite their international law obligations, the nation-states, themselves, are the prime violators of our rights.  Because human rights are inclusive and universal, the exclusive nation-states cannot and do not effectively fulfill their obligation to uphold human rights for everyone everywhere.

    In 1993, I attended an event at a Washington D.C. law school celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  A renowned law professor and human rights expert stated that the Declaration was simply that -- a declaration of what humans would strive for but never would achieve. From the audience, I raised my hand and boldly asserted, "The Universal Declaration is customary international law and all governments are obliged to respect it."  He heartily laughed, waived his hand dismissively at me and said, "The Declaration will never be customary law."

    In 2008, I attended another celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the same law school. This time, however, a panel of 5 expert law professors and human rights activists confirmed that, yes, many articles in the Declaration were now considered to be obligatory under customary international law.  In only 15 years, much of what we strived for in recognition of the Declaration's legal status, we have achieved.

    Join World Service Authority in making every day a human rights day, so we can continue this process of achieving universal justice.  Make your voice heard by registering as a world citizen! (WorldCitizen registration page)

    Thursday, April 25, 2013

    A New Kind of Court

    Garry Davis
    "Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law."               
    Article 6, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Unlike all preceding courts throughout human history based on local or national units, a "world court of human rights" must by definition be grounded on fundamental human rights already proclaimed and recognized universally. This is a juridical breakthrough unprecedented within the concept of nation-states from which all so-called international courts such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court and even the European Court of Human Rights -- though this court could be identified as a "half-way house" -- have derived to a world court grounded in the sovereignty of humanity itself.

    The questions then suppose: From where does such a court arise and how can it be organized?

    Given the potential destructive power of the present nation-state system, in short, absolute and "pointing" at humanity per se, global judicial procedures as exemplified by the Nuremberg trial and Principles -- without sanction, incidentally, of any constitutional reference -- must relate dynamically and juridical from humanity's primal and innate sovereignty in order to adjudicate its very fundamental safety, well-being and happiness.

    Such an essential structure represents a primal shift in juridical thinking such as already indicated by the renowned Dr. Luis Kutner, author of World Habeas Corpus.[1]

    Indeed, the very Universal Declaration of Human Rights itself, deriving irrationally and incongruously from the powerless United Nations[2], proclaims such a breakthrough -- both juridically, viz article 6 to 11, and socially, economically and politically, the last being mandated by both articles 21(3) and 28.

    In short, a world court of human rights worth the name cannot derive from the nation-state dysfunctional system itself -- as aptly proven daily by the impotency of both the socalled International Court of Justice[3] and the ICC to adjudicate humanity's safety, etc. -- but must arise directly from the world citizen constituency itself as indeed the eminent consult-jurist Luis Kutner has advocated in his epic book, World Habeas Corpus. Myriad other jurists' notables such as Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court Wm. J. Brennan, Jr. have confirmed "Faith in fundamental human rights, and the dignity of the human person, is the inspiration and the guiding spirit of the movement for a world rule of law."

    The Global Mandate

    If "everyone" has the right "everywhere" to "recognition" before the law, as affirmed by Article 6, UDHR, such law must be global. So both the law and the person to whom it applies are global or citizens of the world community. A court of world law therefore adjudicates world law for world citizens. But, as sovereignty begins with the human being, a court of world law depends on world law relative to the conduct, rights and duties of humans who have asserted their world citizenship publicly. Otherwise such a court would have no advocates to service in legal jurisprudence. In short, the court's "constituency" precedes its existence just as citizens on any level of social life precede the government thereof.[4]

    A "world court of human rights" therefore is the result of the recognition of a constituted group of humans having declared themselves "citizens of the world." In essence each so-called declared world citizen is a de facto world court of human rights-in-microcosm. The question, "Where is the real government" is likewise answered, "Within the affirmation of each citizen therefore." 

    This in turn is the essence of sovereignty: the individual human exercising freedom of association within a social environment. The formal institution of a WCHR, therefore, is the result of the already-constituted constituency of humans having declared each one, a "citizen of the world" publicly.

    Crimes Against Humanity

    The Nuremberg Principles defined "crimes against humanity" as indictable under Principle VI.
    "a. Crimes against humanity: Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime."

    Humanity itself, however, was not defined although described as a plaintiff for the first time in juridical jurisprudence. Neither was nuclear war described as the most self-evident "crime against humanity."

    A World Court of Human Rights' primary ruling must per se indict world war as the ultimate crime against humanity itself. But war is not a cause but an effect. As Emery Reves wrote in The Anatomy of Peace[5], "Throughout the entire history of all known civilization, only one method has ever succeeded in creating a social order within which each man had security from murder, larceny, cheating and other crimes, and had freedom to think, to speak and to worship. That method is law."

    The ultimate "crime against humanity" therefore, is world anarchy.

    As nuclear war is the ultimate crime whereby humanity itself will be annihilated, a World Court of Human Rights' acting on humanity's behalf and defense, first juridical duty is to outlaw war itself by injunction.

    What is the constituency of the WCHR?

    The above reasoning leads to a startling and undeniable assertion: Just as every national citizen by definition is a potential advocate of the national legal system from birth, so a world citizen is likewise a "global advocate" of humanity's legitimacy, read "sovereignty," identified per se by such as the UDHR and, as of 1974, by the founding of the World Court of Human Rights.[6] Indeed, the very claim by a given nation-state that a human born within its artificial and arbitrary borders is ipso facto bound legally to that arbitrary legalism, confirms the verity of the civic reality of a member of the human species born within the confines of the planet itself.

    Numerous jurists worldwide have advocated world peace through enforceable law such as have been gathering at the City Montessori School in Lucknow[7] since 2001.

    As the already 60-year-old World Service Authority issues relevant documents pertaining to specific articles of the UDHR such as World Birth Certificates, World ID Cards, World Passports and World Marriage Certificates, it will issue to all registered World Citizens a World Court of Human Rights Advocacy Card attesting to that human's affiliation of world legitimacy vis-a-vis the WCHR. In short, the individual World Citizen IS the legal personification of world law to which, incidentally, each and every member of the United Nations has affiliated vis-a-vis the UDHR.

    Formation of the World Court of Human Rights

    The actual formation and "sitting" of the court will follow inevitability and necessarily the rapid evolution of the "world citizen's legal advocacy" formation, potentially in the millions of already registered world citizens. This powerful and undeniable linkage of a world citizens with a logical juridical body designed to protect him/her vis-a-vis human rights violations can happen literally overnight given the communication facilities such as the internet, adequate funding, popular support worldwide, etc. The world citizen constituency will be assessed a modest sum to pay for the issuance of the WCHR’s "World Legal Advocacy Card" as well as enjoined to donate to the "WORLD COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS FUND" already registered with the Merchant's Bank, South Burlington.

    A campaign is already underway to enjoin progressive philanthropists to donate to this vital, historic cause. In addition, a festival is planned to take place on December 10, 2013 at Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the declaration of the UDHR with music and entertainment of leading personalities, information booths for world citizen registration, issuance of the "World Legal Advocacy Card," free UDHRs, books on world law, world citizenship, world travel, etc. (See www.universalhumanrightsfestival.org).

    Moreover, the creation of its own web site – already registered as www.worldcourtofhumanrights.net will hasten the evolution of the actual sitting court as preliminarily outlined by Luis Kutner (See www.worldservice.org/wsalstat.html.)

    [1]  Oceana Publications, Inc, 1962: "Existence of World Man is founded on a fundamental identification of reason with law and that all his grievances, be they imaginary or real, shall have a forum of due process of law."

    [2]  Rendered impotent from its inception due to its Security Council dictatorial system by which any change can be vetoed by the original 5 "victors" of WWII.

    [3] 1996: In a split decision the International Court of Justice ruled that "There is in neither customary nor conventional international law any comprehensive and universal prohibition of the threat or use of nuclear weapons as such. But the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law; However, in view of the current state of international law, and of the elements of fact at its disposal, the Court cannot conclude definitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be lawful or unlawful in an extreme circumstance of self-defense, in which the very survival of a State would be at stake."

    [4]  Ref. Declaration of Independence

    [5]  George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1946

    [6]  Dr. Luis Kutner's Acceptance Speech as the Chief Justice of the World Court of Human Rights:

    June 12, 1974, Sausheim, H.R., France

    I am indeed honored by this appointment which I accept in all humility.

    The international community has come to realize that human rights are not an issue to be left solely to the national jurisdiction of individual states. These rights obviously need protection at a higher level within the framework of international law.

    If the principle aim of society is to protect individuals in the enjoyment of what Blackstone termed "absolute rights," then it follows that the aim of human laws should serve to promote and guard these rights.

    As the World Coordinator rightly pointed out, this morning's trial dramatically exposed the dilemma faced by the sovereign state. While advocating human rights and even proclaiming them as a "common standard of achievement," as does the Preamble to the Universal Declaration of human Rights, it prosecutes blindly* -- as the spokesman for the French Government so vividly revealed* -- a stateless person who, to provide a legitimate framework for his own rights, was obliged to found his own government. I wholly support this action as a logical corollary of 'the U.N.'s proclamation of' the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    If we accept the legitimacy of individual choice in political matters-which is, after all, the essence of democracy -- then the legitimacy of a world government chosen by millions of ordinary citizens cannot be in doubt. What began as a declaration of intent on December 10, 1948 has been slowly evolving into a global compact, a set of rules that proscribe and prescribe the behavior of governments toward their citizens.

    There exists today a codified body of international human rights laws that include conventions and covenants on genocide, civil and political, economic and social rights, refugees' ancl women's rights and racial discrimination. The international community is currently working on instruments to prevent torture, to protect the rights of children and to assure the freedom of religion. While these instruments are not self-enforcing, they do provide means for holding governments accountable. They lead inevitably to this assembly today.

    We are the citizens concerned, We are the ultimate arbiters of human rights as they are innate and inalienable. Our action today in founding a new court to which the single world citizen can appeal falls within the historical evolution of law itself as an evolving institution. After all, the standards and norms enumerated and outlined in international human rights instruments have not been imposed on any of the nations that are party to then. They are, instead, obligations that governments, having assumed freely and voluntarily, cannot afford to abrogate or disregard under any pretext.

    The World Court of Human Rights, while not operating under any written world constitution, nonetheless can embody a "world bill of rights" which defines guarantees relating to deprivation of life, inhumane treatment, slavery and forced labor, personal liberty, determination of rights, including procedural safeguards in criminal cases, freedom of conscience, expression, peaceable assembly and movement, freedom from discrimination and prohibition against compulsory acquisition of property without adequate compensation. Indeed the very enunciation and acceptance of these basic human rights implies due process to insure their implementation and punishment to their violators.

    Such was the premise of the Nuremberg Court. No written world constitution sanctioned the Nuremberg Principles, Yet they were effectively used by the Allies to charge, convict and condemn those accused of the international crimes of war planning, war-making and genocide. tion replaces constitutional guarantees of personal liberty. The citizenry then is made to live in a perpetual state of emergency, When that happens, the state becomes an end in itself, a mere summation of the individuals within it.

    Before this assembly, I pledge my best and most devoted endeavors as Chief Justice of the World Court of Human Rights in the service of the oppressed, the persecuted and the downtrodden. It has been said that the guarantees of personal liberty and impartial justice are the first causalities of a so-called national emergency. Civil courts are too often replaced by military tribunals and the writ of habeas corpus is usually suspended. Inevitablv the despicabie use of preventive detention replaces the constitutional guarantees of personal liberty. The citizenry then is made to live in a perpetual state of emergency. When that happens, the state becomes an end in itself, a mere summation of the individuals within it.

    The World Government of World Citizens that you here represent, is the only effective counter-balance to national citizenry becoming national servitude due to suppression of civil liberties in the name of national security and public order. Now the newly declared World Court of Human Rights will take its place as a needful addition to provide a legal refuge, a global asylum, as it were, to our fellow citizens everywhere. I profoundly believe this day's work has the blessings of the Almighty. Thank you.

    [7]  Largest high school in the world with 44,000 students under the direction of Jagdish Gandhi, all students indoctrinated immediately upon entrance as "World Citizens."