Monday, December 2, 2013

65th Anniversary of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights


by David Gallup
President, World Service Authority

Every December 10th since 1948, we have celebrated the unanimously signed Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as a momentous occasion in humanity's evolution. This is our yearly reminder to make every day a human rights day, to advance social, economic and environmental justice.

For nearly 60 years, the administrative branch of the World Government of World Citizens, the World Service Authority (WSA), has been providing human rights assistance to individuals around the world through legal advocacy, educational services, and documentation. The daily work of WSA's Documentation and Legal Departments has been indispensable to many people made stateless, refugeed, or undocumented due to war or national governmental persecution.

The WSA is tasked with implementing our human rights fully and engaging others in this process. Making everyone aware of their rights, providing tools to help people claim their rights, and seeing that our rights are respected are WSA's principal missions.

The day-to-day advocacy work, educational programs, and document issuance of the WSA both affirm and implement the rights listed in the Declaration:( Click hereto view the Declaration)

  • that everyone is born free and equal in dignity and rights (Article 1)(the World Birth Certificate)

  • that everyone has rights and freedoms without distinction or discrimination of any kind (Article 2) (the World Birth Certificate, the World Citizen Card and Certificate, the World Planetary Vision Commission, the World Women's Commission, the World Stateless Persons Commission)

  • the right to life, liberty and the security of the person (Article 3)(the World Disarmament Commission, the Sovereign Order of World Guards, the World Environment Commission, the World Energy Commission and the World Space Commission)

  • that no one shall be enslaved or tortured (Articles 4 and 5)(the World Judicial Commission and the World Court of Human Rights)

  • the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law (Article 6)(the World ID Card and World Passport)

  • that all are equal before the law and are entitled without discrimination to equal protection of the law (Article 7)(the World Court of Human Rights and the World Judicial Commission)

  • that everyone has the right to an effective remedy, no one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile, everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing if charged with a crime, the right to be presumed innocent, and the right to privacy (Articles 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) (the principle of World Habeas Corpus, the World Court of Human Rights and the World Judicial Commission)

  • the right to freedom of movement and residence, and to leave any country (Article 13)(the World Passport, the International Exit Visa and the International Residence Permit)

  • the right to seek and enjoy asylum from persecution (Article 14)(the World Political Asylum Card and the World Stateless Persons Commission)

  • the right to change your political allegiance (Article 15)(the World Citizen Card and Certificate)

  • the right to marry (Article 16)(the World Marriage Certificate)

  • the right to own property (Article 17)(all WSA documents belong to the individuals to whom they are issued)

  • the right to freedom of thought and conscience (Article 18)(the World Media Association, the World Planetary Vision Commission, world citizenship, universal values)

  • the right to freedom of expression (Article 19)(the World Media Association Press Card and the World Communications Commission)

  • the right to assembly and association (Article 20)(the World Citizen Card and Certificate, the World Citizen Group at

  • the right to take part in government and the will of the people as the basis of the authority of government (Article 21)(the World Syntegrity Project, the World Referendum, the World Parliament, the World Election Commission, the World Citizen Government)

  • the right to social security, the right to work, and the right to leisure (Articles 22, 23, and 24)(the World Economics Commission and the World Sports Commission)

  • the right to a standard of living adequate for one's health and well-being (Article 25)(the World Health Commission and the World Traditional Medicine Commission)

  • the right to education (Article 26)(the World Education Commission and the World Youth Education Commission)

  • the right to freely participate in the cultural life of the world community (Article 27)(the World Cultural Commission and the World Music and Arts Commission)

  • that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms of the Declaration will be fully realized (Article 28) (the World Cybernetics Commission, the World Design Science Commission, the World Syntegrity Project, the World Mundialization Commission, the World Planetary Vision Commission, the World Citizen Government)

  • that everyone has duties to the world community and that our rights are only limited for the purpose of recognizing and respecting the rights and freedoms of others (Article 29) (the World Citizen Card and Certificate and the Sovereign Order of World Guards)

  • that our rights are sacrosanct, inviolable (Article 30)(the World Citizen Government)

  • On this 65th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration, recall that no one will claim your rights for you.  You must claim them. But in order to claim your rights, first you must know them. Every year, the WSA provides thousands of free copies of the Declaration in multiple languages to individuals around the world through its Human Rights Awareness Project.  (Donations are accepted for bulk orders of the Declaration.  Please see the WSA Catalog under "Basic Documents.")(Click here to view theCatalog)

    Join us in this endeavor to ensure that human rights are universally respected for everyone, everywhere, everyday.


    In 1948, the framers of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights did not envision it as a mere wish list of human aspirations. The devastation, despair and despicable acts of World War II were still fresh in their memories when they were drafting the Declaration.  They wanted to create "a social and international order" in which everyone could share the world peacefully and in which everyone's rights and needs would be fully met. They envisioned every day as a human rights day.

    Garry Davis, World War II veteran, world citizen and human rights activist, was, behind the scenes, instrumental in the unanimous signing of the Declaration. By December of 1948, Garry was world famous for camping out on the steps of the United Nations when it was holding its General Assembly sessions at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris and for interrupting a Session to call for a World Government and World Parliament.

    In the halls of the UN, however, the squabbling of the nation-states continued. The Russians and several Soviet Bloc countries were threatening to vote against the Declaration.  The night before the vote, at the Velodrome d'Hiver before 20,000 people, Garry Davis called for World Government. He said, "We can no longer permit ourselves to be lead by statesmen who use us as pawns in the game of national interests. We wish to be led by those who represent us directly: we, the individuals of the human community."

    This rousing speech made headlines throughout Europe and impacted the representatives of the states considering whether to accept or reject the Declaration.  The next day, instead of voting against the UDHR, 8 countries abstained.  This meant that 48 countries unanimously accepted the UDHR.  Now every member-state of the United Nations, when becoming members, must agree at least in principle to abide by the Declaration.

    Because the Declaration is "customary international law," however, it garners less respect than treaty law which all UN member-states are bound to uphold.  And even treaty law is easily flouted by wealthy or powerful countries that either can afford to or find it in their best interest to disobey their agreements because they know there will be no repercussion.  National governments can violate our rights with impunity.  Whether through large scale violations such as war, or the daily indignities that jeopardize our basic freedoms, the nation-states perpetuate a system that intentionally and arbitrarily violates universal rights.  Despite their international law obligations, the nation-states, themselves, are the prime violators of our rights.  Because human rights are inclusive and universal, the exclusive nation-states cannot and do not effectively fulfill their obligation to uphold human rights for everyone everywhere.

    In 1993, I attended an event at a Washington D.C. law school celebrating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  A renowned law professor and human rights expert stated that the Declaration was simply that -- a declaration of what humans would strive for but never would achieve. From the audience, I raised my hand and boldly asserted, "The Universal Declaration is customary international law and all governments are obliged to respect it."  He heartily laughed, waived his hand dismissively at me and said, "The Declaration will never be customary law."

    In 2008, I attended another celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights at the same law school. This time, however, a panel of 5 expert law professors and human rights activists confirmed that, yes, many articles in the Declaration were now considered to be obligatory under customary international law.  In only 15 years, much of what we strived for in recognition of the Declaration's legal status, we have achieved.

    Join World Service Authority in making every day a human rights day, so we can continue this process of achieving universal justice.  Make your voice heard by registering as a world citizen! (WorldCitizen registration page)

    Thursday, April 25, 2013

    A New Kind of Court

    Garry Davis
    "Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law."               
    Article 6, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Unlike all preceding courts throughout human history based on local or national units, a "world court of human rights" must by definition be grounded on fundamental human rights already proclaimed and recognized universally. This is a juridical breakthrough unprecedented within the concept of nation-states from which all so-called international courts such as the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court and even the European Court of Human Rights -- though this court could be identified as a "half-way house" -- have derived to a world court grounded in the sovereignty of humanity itself.

    The questions then suppose: From where does such a court arise and how can it be organized?

    Given the potential destructive power of the present nation-state system, in short, absolute and "pointing" at humanity per se, global judicial procedures as exemplified by the Nuremberg trial and Principles -- without sanction, incidentally, of any constitutional reference -- must relate dynamically and juridical from humanity's primal and innate sovereignty in order to adjudicate its very fundamental safety, well-being and happiness.

    Such an essential structure represents a primal shift in juridical thinking such as already indicated by the renowned Dr. Luis Kutner, author of World Habeas Corpus.[1]

    Indeed, the very Universal Declaration of Human Rights itself, deriving irrationally and incongruously from the powerless United Nations[2], proclaims such a breakthrough -- both juridically, viz article 6 to 11, and socially, economically and politically, the last being mandated by both articles 21(3) and 28.

    In short, a world court of human rights worth the name cannot derive from the nation-state dysfunctional system itself -- as aptly proven daily by the impotency of both the socalled International Court of Justice[3] and the ICC to adjudicate humanity's safety, etc. -- but must arise directly from the world citizen constituency itself as indeed the eminent consult-jurist Luis Kutner has advocated in his epic book, World Habeas Corpus. Myriad other jurists' notables such as Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court Wm. J. Brennan, Jr. have confirmed "Faith in fundamental human rights, and the dignity of the human person, is the inspiration and the guiding spirit of the movement for a world rule of law."

    The Global Mandate

    If "everyone" has the right "everywhere" to "recognition" before the law, as affirmed by Article 6, UDHR, such law must be global. So both the law and the person to whom it applies are global or citizens of the world community. A court of world law therefore adjudicates world law for world citizens. But, as sovereignty begins with the human being, a court of world law depends on world law relative to the conduct, rights and duties of humans who have asserted their world citizenship publicly. Otherwise such a court would have no advocates to service in legal jurisprudence. In short, the court's "constituency" precedes its existence just as citizens on any level of social life precede the government thereof.[4]

    A "world court of human rights" therefore is the result of the recognition of a constituted group of humans having declared themselves "citizens of the world." In essence each so-called declared world citizen is a de facto world court of human rights-in-microcosm. The question, "Where is the real government" is likewise answered, "Within the affirmation of each citizen therefore." 

    This in turn is the essence of sovereignty: the individual human exercising freedom of association within a social environment. The formal institution of a WCHR, therefore, is the result of the already-constituted constituency of humans having declared each one, a "citizen of the world" publicly.

    Crimes Against Humanity

    The Nuremberg Principles defined "crimes against humanity" as indictable under Principle VI.
    "a. Crimes against humanity: Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhuman acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime."

    Humanity itself, however, was not defined although described as a plaintiff for the first time in juridical jurisprudence. Neither was nuclear war described as the most self-evident "crime against humanity."

    A World Court of Human Rights' primary ruling must per se indict world war as the ultimate crime against humanity itself. But war is not a cause but an effect. As Emery Reves wrote in The Anatomy of Peace[5], "Throughout the entire history of all known civilization, only one method has ever succeeded in creating a social order within which each man had security from murder, larceny, cheating and other crimes, and had freedom to think, to speak and to worship. That method is law."

    The ultimate "crime against humanity" therefore, is world anarchy.

    As nuclear war is the ultimate crime whereby humanity itself will be annihilated, a World Court of Human Rights' acting on humanity's behalf and defense, first juridical duty is to outlaw war itself by injunction.

    What is the constituency of the WCHR?

    The above reasoning leads to a startling and undeniable assertion: Just as every national citizen by definition is a potential advocate of the national legal system from birth, so a world citizen is likewise a "global advocate" of humanity's legitimacy, read "sovereignty," identified per se by such as the UDHR and, as of 1974, by the founding of the World Court of Human Rights.[6] Indeed, the very claim by a given nation-state that a human born within its artificial and arbitrary borders is ipso facto bound legally to that arbitrary legalism, confirms the verity of the civic reality of a member of the human species born within the confines of the planet itself.

    Numerous jurists worldwide have advocated world peace through enforceable law such as have been gathering at the City Montessori School in Lucknow[7] since 2001.

    As the already 60-year-old World Service Authority issues relevant documents pertaining to specific articles of the UDHR such as World Birth Certificates, World ID Cards, World Passports and World Marriage Certificates, it will issue to all registered World Citizens a World Court of Human Rights Advocacy Card attesting to that human's affiliation of world legitimacy vis-a-vis the WCHR. In short, the individual World Citizen IS the legal personification of world law to which, incidentally, each and every member of the United Nations has affiliated vis-a-vis the UDHR.

    Formation of the World Court of Human Rights

    The actual formation and "sitting" of the court will follow inevitability and necessarily the rapid evolution of the "world citizen's legal advocacy" formation, potentially in the millions of already registered world citizens. This powerful and undeniable linkage of a world citizens with a logical juridical body designed to protect him/her vis-a-vis human rights violations can happen literally overnight given the communication facilities such as the internet, adequate funding, popular support worldwide, etc. The world citizen constituency will be assessed a modest sum to pay for the issuance of the WCHR’s "World Legal Advocacy Card" as well as enjoined to donate to the "WORLD COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS FUND" already registered with the Merchant's Bank, South Burlington.

    A campaign is already underway to enjoin progressive philanthropists to donate to this vital, historic cause. In addition, a festival is planned to take place on December 10, 2013 at Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the declaration of the UDHR with music and entertainment of leading personalities, information booths for world citizen registration, issuance of the "World Legal Advocacy Card," free UDHRs, books on world law, world citizenship, world travel, etc. (See

    Moreover, the creation of its own web site – already registered as will hasten the evolution of the actual sitting court as preliminarily outlined by Luis Kutner (See

    [1]  Oceana Publications, Inc, 1962: "Existence of World Man is founded on a fundamental identification of reason with law and that all his grievances, be they imaginary or real, shall have a forum of due process of law."

    [2]  Rendered impotent from its inception due to its Security Council dictatorial system by which any change can be vetoed by the original 5 "victors" of WWII.

    [3] 1996: In a split decision the International Court of Justice ruled that "There is in neither customary nor conventional international law any comprehensive and universal prohibition of the threat or use of nuclear weapons as such. But the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law; However, in view of the current state of international law, and of the elements of fact at its disposal, the Court cannot conclude definitively whether the threat or use of nuclear weapons would be lawful or unlawful in an extreme circumstance of self-defense, in which the very survival of a State would be at stake."

    [4]  Ref. Declaration of Independence

    [5]  George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1946

    [6]  Dr. Luis Kutner's Acceptance Speech as the Chief Justice of the World Court of Human Rights:

    June 12, 1974, Sausheim, H.R., France

    I am indeed honored by this appointment which I accept in all humility.

    The international community has come to realize that human rights are not an issue to be left solely to the national jurisdiction of individual states. These rights obviously need protection at a higher level within the framework of international law.

    If the principle aim of society is to protect individuals in the enjoyment of what Blackstone termed "absolute rights," then it follows that the aim of human laws should serve to promote and guard these rights.

    As the World Coordinator rightly pointed out, this morning's trial dramatically exposed the dilemma faced by the sovereign state. While advocating human rights and even proclaiming them as a "common standard of achievement," as does the Preamble to the Universal Declaration of human Rights, it prosecutes blindly* -- as the spokesman for the French Government so vividly revealed* -- a stateless person who, to provide a legitimate framework for his own rights, was obliged to found his own government. I wholly support this action as a logical corollary of 'the U.N.'s proclamation of' the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

    If we accept the legitimacy of individual choice in political matters-which is, after all, the essence of democracy -- then the legitimacy of a world government chosen by millions of ordinary citizens cannot be in doubt. What began as a declaration of intent on December 10, 1948 has been slowly evolving into a global compact, a set of rules that proscribe and prescribe the behavior of governments toward their citizens.

    There exists today a codified body of international human rights laws that include conventions and covenants on genocide, civil and political, economic and social rights, refugees' ancl women's rights and racial discrimination. The international community is currently working on instruments to prevent torture, to protect the rights of children and to assure the freedom of religion. While these instruments are not self-enforcing, they do provide means for holding governments accountable. They lead inevitably to this assembly today.

    We are the citizens concerned, We are the ultimate arbiters of human rights as they are innate and inalienable. Our action today in founding a new court to which the single world citizen can appeal falls within the historical evolution of law itself as an evolving institution. After all, the standards and norms enumerated and outlined in international human rights instruments have not been imposed on any of the nations that are party to then. They are, instead, obligations that governments, having assumed freely and voluntarily, cannot afford to abrogate or disregard under any pretext.

    The World Court of Human Rights, while not operating under any written world constitution, nonetheless can embody a "world bill of rights" which defines guarantees relating to deprivation of life, inhumane treatment, slavery and forced labor, personal liberty, determination of rights, including procedural safeguards in criminal cases, freedom of conscience, expression, peaceable assembly and movement, freedom from discrimination and prohibition against compulsory acquisition of property without adequate compensation. Indeed the very enunciation and acceptance of these basic human rights implies due process to insure their implementation and punishment to their violators.

    Such was the premise of the Nuremberg Court. No written world constitution sanctioned the Nuremberg Principles, Yet they were effectively used by the Allies to charge, convict and condemn those accused of the international crimes of war planning, war-making and genocide. tion replaces constitutional guarantees of personal liberty. The citizenry then is made to live in a perpetual state of emergency, When that happens, the state becomes an end in itself, a mere summation of the individuals within it.

    Before this assembly, I pledge my best and most devoted endeavors as Chief Justice of the World Court of Human Rights in the service of the oppressed, the persecuted and the downtrodden. It has been said that the guarantees of personal liberty and impartial justice are the first causalities of a so-called national emergency. Civil courts are too often replaced by military tribunals and the writ of habeas corpus is usually suspended. Inevitablv the despicabie use of preventive detention replaces the constitutional guarantees of personal liberty. The citizenry then is made to live in a perpetual state of emergency. When that happens, the state becomes an end in itself, a mere summation of the individuals within it.

    The World Government of World Citizens that you here represent, is the only effective counter-balance to national citizenry becoming national servitude due to suppression of civil liberties in the name of national security and public order. Now the newly declared World Court of Human Rights will take its place as a needful addition to provide a legal refuge, a global asylum, as it were, to our fellow citizens everywhere. I profoundly believe this day's work has the blessings of the Almighty. Thank you.

    [7]  Largest high school in the world with 44,000 students under the direction of Jagdish Gandhi, all students indoctrinated immediately upon entrance as "World Citizens."

    Thursday, January 3, 2013


    Garry Davis

    JANUARY 1, 2013

       The definition of "humanity" is 1. "All human beings collectively; the human race; humankind."[1]
       As "sovereignty" is defined as "supreme," "preeminence," "indisputable sovereign power," humanity as such enjoys sine qua non such attributes.
     Sovereignty therefore has passed historically and legally from the nation-state to Humanity.
       The very Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its first article verifies and mandates each and every human as a fundamental unit of humanity in toto:
      "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
       Moreover, the UDHR's Preamble affirms that "whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world..."
      Sages and prophets, scientists[2] and artists of all fields[3] have from time immemorial prophesied that Humanity one day would enter the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of Wisdom and the Age of Unity. Moreover, from the Decalogue through the 1215 Magna Carta, the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the 1789 Declaration de l'Homme et du Citoyen, the 1789 U.S. Bill of Rights, the 1914 Atlantic Charter, the 1945 Nuremberg Principles, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 1953 Ellsworth Declaration (of World Government), and the 1974 Statute of the World Court of Human Rights, humanity has arrived, not without giant trials and tribulation, at the birth of the Age of Sovereign legitimacy and legitimate planetary citizenship.
      In addition, having entered the Nuclear Age in 1945, when destructive power has risen from relative to absolute, moreover becoming genocidal, humanity itself became potentially a global target of the nation-state war system, carried over from the largely agricultural 18th and 19th centuries.
         In brief, if humanity dies, so does the human race including all so-called fictional nation-states.
       Therefore humanity per se has entered the prophetic Age of Legitimate Sovereignty.
        Moreover, "Crimes against humanity" cited in the Nuremberg Principles, for the first time in judicial history, posited humanity as a reality and potential defendant.[4]
       Thus, under total threat of attack and possible elimination by the anarchic nation-state system,[5] Humanity, as an existent fact, has achieved, as of 1945, a de facto and per se legitimate sovereign status vis-a-vis the war-dominated nation-state world.
       In strictly legal terms, as of 1945, threatened by the obsolete national dysfunctional war system, humanity became a potential "plaintiff" beginning with the Nuremberg Trials following World War II, requiring legal defense. The nuclear "gun," in verifiable and judicial fact, was and is pointing directly at it: a "global felony."
       In short, if humanity can be wiped out via nuclear weaponry, it is therefore obliged to defend itself legally as a potential victim.[6]
       Thus, for the first time in juridical history, an indictment of "Crimes Against Humanity" entered international jurisprudence. A world court of human rights adjudicating world law is already mandated in the UDHR beginning with articles 6 to 9.
       In turn, as humanity by definition is composed of all humans, each human claiming, as an inalienable right, the addition of world citizenship, becomes, and is legitimately, also a micro-global plaintiff vis-a-vis the national war system under the sovereign protection of world law.
       Humans in society on whatever level become citizens and citizens form governments.
       Or else inalienable rights of political choice are meaningless.
       For it is only to protect these that individuals establish a social and political order, carefully defined and always at the consent of the governed.[7]
       The aware individual, therefore, faced with a worldly disorder, has first to declare and affirm his or her dynamic political identification with his/her human community.
       Also, in declaring ourselves citizens of the world community in which we currently live, we are affirming that essentially we are our own governors.
       The individual affirmation and registration of world citizenship therefore is the first step toward realization of human rights for all, the realistic path to world peace. Because it is world humans legally bonding with fellow humans for their individual and collective survival, well-being and happiness.
       We are establishing our innate sovereignty as humans in charge of our own destiny.
       This is the essence of the democratic principle and precisely where true sovereignty exists, is maintained and prevails for one and all.
       The process is in full progress and has been since January 1, 1949.[8]
       The benefits accruing to a sovereign humanity almost defy the boldest imagination.
       Released from the strangling entanglements of internal planetary war, a giant leap forward in civic and economic benefits for a world citizenry would automatically ensue. Such items are already mandated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights agreed upon by every member of the impotent and defective United Nations. Protection of Earth's environment itself would be the primary and immediate task.
     The greatest advancement, however, would be on the spiritual or consciousness level, already announced by such enlightened humans as Christ, Buddha, Mohammed, Lao-Tse, Vyasa, Diogenes, Socrates, Theilhard de Chardin, Plato, Thoreau, T. Paine, Gandhi, Einstein, H. G. Wells, Schweitzer, Buckminster Fuller, Martin Luther King, Jr., Emery Reves, and on and on, when the metaphysical development of our species would take a giant leap into realms only imagined today.
       Finally, in the cosmic sense, Humanity is but a speck of matter in a timeless universe.
    And yet, IT IS HERE AND NOW and WE ARE IT!

               That is why we must survive and endure.


    [1] Random House Collegiate Dictionary
    [2] Einstein: "A new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels."
    [3] Charlie Chaplin: "Charlot"  for instance
    [4] (c) Crimes against humanity: Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation and other inhumane acts done against any civilian population, or persecutions on political, racial, or religious grounds, when such acts are done or such persecutions are carried on in execution of or in connection with any crime against peace or any war crime.
    [5] The 18th, 19th centuries witnessed the increasing dominance of the nation-state system in a largely agricultural world, pre-technological, pre-electronics, pre-nuclear and pre-space.
    [6] Luis Kutner was one of the first to recognize the absolute need for the principle of habeas corpus to be raised to the global level since arbitrary detention, first achieved under the Magna Carta in 1215, was being violated throughout the nation-state system due to the anarchic condition prevailing between all nations by definition.
    [7] Example: Ninth Amendment of the US Constitution.
    [8] The founding of the International Registry of World Citizens from Paris, France by the author.